Congresos y reuniones científicas
Heterogeneous forms of informal work and productive chains. The case of the garment industry in Argentina.
Buenos Aires
Congreso; 36th International Labour Process Conference; 2018
Different studies and scholars point out that capitalist development requires the existence of an "informal working class", but that class is not presented as a sector or segment isolated from its structure but rather as a continuum of economic relations of production and commercialization (Bernstein, 2007; Hussmans, 2005). This is particularly evident in developing countries in which a large part of economic activities are developed by small production units and "self employed" generating sophisticated networks of exploitation and self-exploitation relationships (Davis, 2006).One of the industries where this can be proven is the garment manufacturing industry. In Argentina this is one of the manufacturing activities that contributes most to the generation of total employment, although their working conditions are far from ideal (Lieutier, 2010, Ferrerira and Schorr, 2013). The sector includes a significant share of non-salaried workers (32%) and unregistered employees (45.5%) (Bertranou et al, 2013) with a low percentage of unionization of workers (around 17%) (Matta and Magnano , 2011).The fragmentation, relocation and outsourcing of the different links of the production chain, which have particularly deteriorated the working conditions of garment workers, is not an exclusive problem for the country but a global phenomenon that is widely verified (Anner et al, 2012; Piore and Schrank , 2006; O´Rourke, 2011).The seemingly paradoxical situation in Argentina is that the country was for a long time outside the global clothing value chains, not participating as an exporter of labor for large international commercial firms or as a big importer in part thanks to the macroeconomic policies carried out between 2003 and 2015 (Matta et al, 2015),This paper presents the preliminary results of an empirical investigation carried out in the region of Córdoba (Argentina), one of the three large conglomerates of the country where the industry is concentrated in which the objective will be:- Empirically demonstrate the grid structure assumed by the value chains at the local level and the way in which the relations between the formal and informal economies assume inter-firm relations of contracting and subcontracting- Identify the heterogeneous forms in which the "informal working class" is presented, from different forms of production and commercialization, as well as the connection and coexistence between different sociotechnical regimes (Geels and Schot, 2010).- Analyze the main limitations of recent industrial development policies to modify this structure of relationships. Although this is an investigation that appeals to methodological triangulation (Fielding and Schreler, 2001; Moran-Ellis et al, 2006) using mixed methods, a distinctive aspect of the study is that it has the results of in-depth interviews and a semi-structured survey of a representative sample of 257 formal and informal productive units that make up the sector in the region, from the largest companies to family and one-person enterprises or workers cooperatives. The analysis of the data will include, among other techniques, the use of "social network analysis", cluster analysis and content analysis to achieve these objectives.